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Hvordan fåg et ligg jomfruhinne myte

In what is coming, we will need to work with links, which are merely collections of knots. Åpningen i skjedekransen kan variere i størrelse. Also unexpected is its usefulness in studying the chemical processes of life. En slik praksis er dessuten med på å støtte opp om holdninger til jenters seksualitet og begrepene «jomfruhinne» og «jomfrudom skriver Sex og samfunn på nettsiden sin. Imagine looking at a link in a mirror that is directly behind the link. Tull og fanteri, det er ikke riktig! To do so, we will first orient the link diagram by putting arrows on it: and define the incidence number of a crossing to be: 1 if the crossing is like -1 if the crossing is like The writhe of the diagram is now the. Reidemeister moves, may be made to the picture of a link without changing the link itself. However, a theorem proved by Kurt Reidemeister in the 1930's gives us a way to understand how different pictures of the same knot may vary from one another.

Fortunately, there is a way to fix this problem. This polynomial, known as the Kauffman polynomial, is related to the Jones polynomial, which predates. Nicholas Cozzarelli, a molecular biologist at the University of California-Berkeley until his death last year, said: "Before Jones, the math was incredibly arcane. Det samme gjelder jo selvsagt også fag som kroppsøving og norsk. Ingen vet helt sikkert hvilken funksjon skjedekransen har. It turns out that the figure 8 knot is equivalent to its mirror image, a fact that you may wish to verify by finding a sequence of Reidemeister moves that takes the picture of the figure 8 knot into its mirror image. Likevel er jomfruhinnen en av de mest seiglivede mytene om seksualitet som finnes, ved siden av den om at jenter som ikke har født barn ikke skal ha spiral, sier Tore Holte Follestad.

Det er en slimhinnefold som sitter som en krans et par centimeter innenfor skjedeåpningen og markerer overgangen til selve skjeden. Volvat gjorde det fram til 2006, ifølge Aftenposten. Skjedekransen er elastisk og kan tøyes betydelig uten at slimhinnen ødelegges, særlig hos jenter i og etter pubertet, slik. Dette bør absolutt inn i utdanningen. Noen antar at den er en rest fra fosterstadiet. Vaughn Jones, "A Polynomial Invariant for Knots via von Neumann Algebras." Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 12, 103-111, 1985. Noen klinikker i utlandet gjør det, men det er dyrt og resultatet er usikkert. Erica Flapan, When topology meets chemistry: A topological look at molecular chirality.

Jeg går siste året på VGS og har i år fått en elendig lærer med alt for høye forventninger i både religion og historie (samme læreren) noe som gjør at jeg muligens får en dårligere karakter enn det jeg burde i de to fagene. References Knot theory references accessible to undergraduates. Introduction, gardening presents a mathematical challenge for me: As I drag the garden hose around my lawn, the hose invariably gets tangled up with itself in ways that can seem endlessly complicated. Now think about what happens when a cell divides: A second copy of the DNA is produced, which is necessarily tangled up with the first, and this copy must somehow be pulled apart from the original. As you can see, the polynomials are different and so the knots themselves must be different. Putting these two observations together means that if is the mirror image of the oriented link L, then and hence Consider now the trefoil and its mirror image: V(t) tt3-t4 V(t) t-1t-3-t4 Since the two polynomials are different, this shows that the trefoil and its. Jenter har en skjedekrans. We would see the same link diagram, but the over- and under-crossings would simply be interchanged. Enzymes, known as topoisomerases, assist by breaking and rejoining strands of DNA; in essence, topoisomerases allow the molecules to pass through one another, just as I wish for my garden hose. Alexei Podtelezhnikov, Nicholas Cozzarelli, Alexander Vologodskii, "Equilibrium distributions of topological state in circular DNA: Interplay of supercoiling and knotting." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96, 1999.


Rather surprisingly, Jones found his polynomial through his work in operator algebras, an area of mathematics seemingly far-flung from knot theory. The way the knots were classified had nothing to do with biology, but now you can calculate the things important to you". Moves I and II leave it unchanged, but straightening out the kink in move III introduces a factor of -x3. Ofte er det andre grunner til at det blør, som at en ikke er opphisset nok eller fuktig nok i skjeden. Link diagrams, let us restate a fundamental difficulty in dealing with knots: different pictures of the same knot may look wildly different. Summary After Kelvin's vortex theory was abandoned as an explanation for atomic structure, mathematicians studied knots for over a century motivated mainly by curiosity.

Simply said, this theory postulated that atoms were formed by knots in the ether and that different chemical elements were formed by different knots. Of course, people with different names are different; in the same way, knots with different names are different as well. Considering the first Reidemeister move, we would therefore like to have Let's see where this leads us: x y x2 xy yx y2 xy (x2y2xyz) Since we would like we must have xy 1 x2 y2 xyz. Det er på høy tid at både kvinner og menn tar dette innover seg). Det vil si at man ser på den som en hinne eller membran som dekker skjedeåpningen og som ødelegges ved penetrering.

Cambridge University Press, 2000. Skjedekransen er forbundet med myter som at dette er en såkalt «jomfruhinne». Da er det utrolig synd at helsepersonell sprer myter på denne måten. Raymond Lickorish, An Introduction to Knot Theory, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, Springer, 1997. Untangling the hose usually requires time and patience; the job would be a lot easier if I could somehow pass the hose through itself to untangle. This would be the case if the polynomial is unchanged when we perform any of the three Reidemeister moves. For instance, (x2y2)z 2xy, the bracket polynomial is defined by three simple rules.

 «Jomfruhinnen som folk tror er en hinne eller stram ring, finnes ikke. Operasjon Å operere skjedekransen løser sjelden problemer. For those with access, the American Mathematical Society's MathSciNet can be used to get additional bibliographic information and reviews of some these materials. For example, imagine the nucleus of a cell scaled to the size of a basketball. Hva sier dette om utdanningen av helsepersonell? In this article, we'll follow a path to the Jones polynomial found by Louis Kauffman.

The following three simple changes, called. For instance, the two knots below are really the same though one appears, at least at first glance, to be a more complicated knot. In the 1980's, Vaughn Jones found a way to name knots by associating a polynomial, now called the Jones polynomial, to every knot. Notice that Reidemeister move III changes the writhe: writhe 1 writhe Therefore, if we have an oriented link diagram L and define the polynomial PL(x) to be PL(x) (-x3)writhe(L) L then this polynomial depends only on the oriented link and not on the diagram used. Also, if L is a knot, then the polynomial does not depend on the orientation since the writhe is independent of the orientation. This is where mathematics comes.

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Vaughn Jones, "Hecke Algebra Representations of Braid Groups and Link Polynomials." Annals of Mathematics 126, 335-388, 1987. Man må gå på kurs og være nysgjerrig, sier han. To distinguish knots from one another, mathematicians have developed ways to assign names to knots, just the way that people have names assigned to them. Some of the items above can be accessed via the ACM Portal, which also provides bibliographic services. Since Kelvin's time, mathematicians have developed increasingly powerful tools for making sense of this complexity. Det er rett og slett skammelig.

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